Body Image in the 21st Century


Key Terms and People

Sexual identity, Gender identity, Gender role, Double burden, Socialization, Anna Fausto-Sterling, Ph.D., Brown University, Peer groups, Mass media, Social identity, Self concept, Role, Sexualization, Barbara Cohen, Ph. D., //Body Image//: An International Journal of Research, Paul Ferdinand Schilder, Biological reductionism (essentialism), Masculinity, Peter Stearns, Sizeism, Body Mass Index (BMI), Health at Every Size, Linda Bacon, Jon Robinson, Surgeon General, Journal of American Medical Association, Female Body Shape, Bulimia Nervosa, Self Image, Anorexia Nervosa, Physical Exercise, Beauty, Cosmetic Surgery, Fashion, Parenting, School, Peers, National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance,

Overview

Body image is a constant concern in cultures across the world. It usually resonates with dissatisfaction about the body or a certain aspect of it. The term “Body Image” first came about in the 1900s and since then has evolved and reshaped its meaning over the centuries. In the 21st century body image has made an impact on the globalization of beauty, created different ways to modify the body, expelled new controversies, and brought about a movement based around reclaiming body image. These specific categories do not cover every aspect of body image but they do address many of the main concerns and/or repercussions body image causes. Media is one of the main catalysts in creating the image of an ideal body. Across the globe the ideal body varies and media allows for that image to be known by all. The desire to obtain this ideal body has lead to new inventions and ideas to modify the body. One of the main body modifications skyrocketing in the 21st century is cosmetic surgery. Though many people turn to cosmetic surgery for their ideal body answers others reject the ideal body form. Groups of men and women are now gathering together in hopes of raising awareness about the dangers of unhealthy body ideals. The remainder of this page will examine the concept of body image in the 21st century further.

History

The formal conceptualization and research of “body image” first emerged in the early 1900s in the context of clinicians trying to understand neurological disorders such as phantom limb (continuing to feel amputated limbs/removed organs), autotopagnosia (loss of sense of posture), and hemiasomatognosia (neglect of half of the body). These are all somewhat rare disorders caused by physical damage to the brain. [[#cite_note-1|[1]] ]

During the 1920s and 1930s, Paul Schilder, an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and researcher, helped greatly expand the notion of body image. Schilder wrote many scientific papers fleshing out his ideas of body image, and finally in 1935 he published his book The Image and Appearance of the Human Body, which was considered one of his greatest contributions. He combined major theories of the time “to arrive to his own formulation of the fundamental role of the body image in man's relation to himself, to his fellow human beings, and to the world around him.” [[#cite_note-2|[2]] ] He covered many of the neurological disorders that first spurred discussion about what "body image" is, but he then broadened his analysis from a strictly neu
rological to a more sociological view. In Part III of his book, he expands body image "beyond the confines of the body. A stick, a hat, any kind of clothes, become part of the body-image." [[#cite_note-3|[3]] ]

Since these somewhat recent beginnings, the study of body image has mostly been dominated by clinical psychology and psychiatry. More recently, other fields such as sociology and women’s studies have also contributed a great deal to our current body of knowledge, however, in each of these fields the focus has tended to be on women and eating disorders. While this is incredibly important, studying almost exclusively women neglects half of the human population. Much more research is needed from the rest of the gender spectrum.

Because the study of body image is dispersed throughout so many different disciplines, journals, and specialties, in 2003 Body Image: An International Journal of Researchroviding a place to compile this information.The journal is interdisciplinary and the first issue offers an overview of knowns and unknowns to be replicated or researched. [[#cite_note-4|[4]] ]

What society considers ideal for body image is constantly in flux and differs from culture to culture. In the United States during the 1800s, the ideal woman was graceful, sickly, and pale. Most women were striving for a waist that their husband's hand could span the back of, and were aided by the invention of the corset. [[#cite_note-5|[5]] ] The corset also contributed to women seeming sickly and weak since it impaired their breathing making them faint, and also caused uterine displacement or uterine prolapse, in which "the uterus is forced through, or collapses outside of, the cervix, protrudes into the vagina and in extreme cases, outside the body." [[#cite_note-6|[6]] ]
Throughout the 1900s and now into the 2000s, ideal female body image has been shifting nearly every decade, however the general trend has been towards increasing thinness. A major difference between the 1800s and now more recent decades is that women are being seen as sexual. In the Victorian era, women were viewed as childlike and asexual, but by the 1920s, women were expected to make themselves look sexy. [[#cite_note-7|[7]] ]

During the Progressive Era around the turn of the century, the corset was replaced by the invention of the brassiere, which allowed for women to have a more natural waistline. However, by the 1920s and along with the women’s suffrage movement came the curveless look of the flapper. This plank-like look was achieved by using bras to actually bind their breasts. [[#cite_note-8|[8]] ]

The 1930-50s saw the return of fuller busts and thinner waists, and women started wearing girdles and pushup bras. During the post-WWII 40s and 50s, women were expected to fulfill the domestic role of nurturing mother and homemaker. This was the era of voluptuousness embodied by Marilyn Monroe, and docility portrayed by shows like Leave It To Beaver.
The second-wave feminist movement was the pushback against this limited scope of opportunity for women. Betty Friedan’s bestselling The Feminine Mystique, along with President John F. Kennedy’s Presidential Commission on the Status of Women spurred the formation of many government and independent women’s liberation organizations. This simultaneously encouraged women to take control of their lives and bodies. [[#cite_note-9|[9]] ] Interestingly, this new empowerment women felt prompted them to begin wearing tighter-fitting clothing, but with this came a wave of self-consciousness surrounding their figures. At the same time that women were burning bras and shunning makeup, supermodels like Twiggy were being idolized. Anne Bolin, an anthropologist at Elon University suggests that perhaps "during periods of liberation, like the 1920s, when women had just gotten the vote, and the 1960s, when the Pill became available, the ideal shape for women deemphasized their reproductive characteristics--the nourishing breasts, the wide, childbearing hips."

In the early 70s, women also added the athletic look to the beauty standard. In 1972 Title IX legislation was passed to give girls in schools more sports opportunities. The importance of athleticism continued to increase throughout the 80s and 90s, but despite this models in the fashion industry continued growing thinner and by the late 1980s, the average model weighed 23% less than the average American woman (as opposed to only 8% less in the 1960s). [[#cite_note-10|[10]] ]

Globalization of Beauty

Societal pressure accosts women (and men) everywhere with media coverage, nearly impossible standards for appearance and such pressures are easily spread by the fluidity of the beauty markets and mainstream media, like television and Hollywood movies. Celebrities are responsible for some of that pressure to look a certain way and such high standards cause women to over adapt using skin whiteners, extreme cosmetic surgery and binge eating and purging; Beauty companies and brands are additionally responsible for the standards in beauty and health the world has presently. Eventually only one dominated the beauty standards and ideals by taking over the beauty industry: the United States.
sammy-sosa-bleached-skin.jpg
An example of skin whitening done correctly


In the United States, the mainstream beauty companies had little interest in non-White consumers during the middle of the nineteenth century; beauty pageants excluded them, and ethnic groups with the “wrong” shaped noses created a demand for cosmetic surgery. The Caucasian form of beauty was the most desirable type of beauty. [[#cite_note-11|[11]] ] Striving to achieve perfection, women commonly over-adapted through ways such as skin whitening, cosmetic surgery, and starving themselves. Skin whitening has become more and more popular amongst Indonesian and Thai women (and men); skin creams are sold off the market that are dangerous, unregulated and contain harmful chemicals such as mercury that strip the skin of pigment, which can leave women who were hoping to have a fairer complexion with blotchy ruined skin for life. [[#cite_note-12|[12]]

skinbleachwrong.jpg
Adverse effects of skin whitening

Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubenstein were cosmetics brands that heavily influenced the beauty market by exporting goods all over the world, which they marketed by making their products appealing to women who strived to achieve the American “standard” ideal of beauty. Eventually, American cosmetics companies increased their popularity enough to rival international cosmetics companies. Through use of clever marketing and domination of the global cosmetics economy, companies and brand names enforced the U.S. idea of beauty and glamour. The influence on foreign cultures was definitive and could not be stopped. The powerful brand names had adapted their product to appeal to other cultures. Americanized beauty ideals had heavy repercussions on traditions and cultures. For example, in Japan "by the first World War the government had managed to finally eliminate the two-thousand year practice of eyebrow shaving and tooth blackening, or "Ohaguro", at least in urban areas, though tooth blackening in rural areas seems to have persisted much longer, while the use of a white painted face by middle class women was encouraged as a way to retain traditional values and gender divisions”. Previous to the nineteenth century it was common for women in Japan to go through such cosmetics practices but the American standards for hygiene and appearance perforated the traditional Japanese ways.
victoria_beckham.jpg
Victoria Beckham: Then and Now

During the interwar years the rise of Hollywood to dominate the emergent world cinema indu
stry intensified the diffusion of American hygiene and beauty ideals both to other Western countries, and to developing countries with much lower income levels and different cultural traditions. [[#cite_note-13|[13]] ] Young starlets such as Marilyn Monroe and Rita Hayworth, as well as the current stars like Angelina Jolie and the cross-continental Victoria Beckham, held heavy influence on the popular beauty trends of the time. Marilyn was famous for her bust-waist-hips measurements, with her slim waist and larger bosom that was equal to her hips. While a more voluptuous figure was desired in the nineteenth century, a slimmer, more angular figure is the most desired trait for a woman to have currently. [[#cite_note-14|[14]] ] The ever-shrinking body of Victoria Beckham is splashed over pop-culture magazine headlines and the television and thanks to non-stop media coverage of Hollywood’s favorite belles, women everywhere are constantly bombarded with pressure to look like the stars. Victoria Beckham is a pop icon not only in America, but in the UK and affects beauty trends in both regions, carrying with her the mixed projections of what she views as ideal beauty. The media plays a large role in affecting cultures everywhere concerning what women’s appearance should be. The clothing line Victoria Beckham recently launched, known as dVb, is a high fashion and edgy line following modern lines along with encouraging the extremely thin body type viewed as the “right” canvas to show clothes off. Many Hollywood starlets have launched clothing lines over the years and most have been available to the minute markets of affluent white women. Such clothes and popularity from media lend a great deal of influence over not only American women but other cultures as well.


What Is New In Body Modification

Although there has been a lot of attention this century concerning embracing whatever body image you were born with, there have also been various scientific advancements that are making it easier than ever to modify your body. The evolution of plastic surgery has made is possible to modify almost every part of your body from the commonly known breast implants to newly popular buttock augmentation and calf augmentation.

The most common plastic surgeries performed in the 21st century are still nose jobs and breast augmentations. However, the newly popular Botox injections have been making a surge forward as one of the most popular forms of body modification.
nose_job_final1.jpg
before and after pictures after a rhinoplasty procedure


Botox is the injection of the botulinum toxin type A to tighten the skin (by paralyzing it), particularly on the face and forehead. This procedure is gaining popularity because it is a non-invasive procedure, which is becoming the most popular method of body modification. Between the years of 1997 and 2008 there was a significant jump in the number of injections being done, from 65,157 treatments to more than 2.4 million respectively, according to an article in Forbes magazine.

One of the most well-known and most common forms of plastic surgery is the breast implant (also known as breast augmentation), which is a procedure done to increase the size of a woman's breasts. Women may decide to have this surgery for personal reasons resulting from unhappiness with one’s body currently, or because of a previous medical procedure (such as mastectomy) and therefore want to re-enhance their bodies. In 2010 the number of breast augmentation surgeries continued to rise to around 300,000.

Another very common form of plastic surgery is the rhinoplasty or a "nose-job." Women have been getting
nose jobs for many years and it remains one of the most common plastic surgeries performed. This type of procedure can be to fix the function of the nose or as an elective cosmetic surgery. Breathing could be impaired from conditions such as deviated septum. This procedure can also be performed to change the shape/size of the nose, as can be seen in the picture to the right.

A new addition to the list of popular modifications is permanent makeup. Women are now getting eyeliner, lip-liner and eye-shadow tattooed to their face. A common use of this is to tattoo eyebrows on the face after they have been lost due to a trauma, such as disease, accident, or side effect of cancer treatment.

In terms of what these procedures mean for the body image in the 21st century is that they make it easier for people to try and obtain the thin, "perfect" image that they see in magazines and on television. Before this, women could work out, wear makeup or different clothing to try and mimic what they were seeing in magazines. Now, they can go that next step and actually change the way they look in order to feel that they fit into what they perceive as the best body type. These procedures do, however, enable those who have deformities or have sustained an injury to a certain part of the body (such as breaking a nose) to restore the normal position of the nose, or to fix the deformity. As with many advancements in science, there are the good and the bad.

For a comprehensive list of plastic surgeries offered.

Men and Body Image in the 21st Century

Along with women, men feel the desire to have the ideal body. However, unlike most women, men turn external image 0007431217157_215X215.jpg to the aid of overall muscle enhancing supplements, also known as performance-enhancing drugs*. These include things such as pre- and post-work out pills, milks, juices, smoothies, and steroids. Some men use all of these supplements in order to achieve the ideal body projected by their social surroundings.

Steroids are the most common body-enhancing supplement. Major athletic leagues such as the MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL drug test their athletes on a regular basis for steroid use. David Ortiz, Barry Bonds, Bill Romanowski, and Mark McGwire are among some of the many athletes who were caught using steroids. Steroids are common among athletes because they show the fastest results of muscle enhancement.

Muscle enhancing pills, smoothies, and milks are a new way for men to see results with out taking steroids. Big name companies like Muscle Milk and Nitrocut will use well-known icons to endorse their supplements. For example the supplement NoX Edge* is endorsed by the Jersey Shore Reality star Mike “The Situation”* in hopes that men will see his chiseled six pack and bulging biceps and want to look like him. In recent times men have been taking extreme steps in order to achieve the ideal body. This causes them to turn to muscle enhancing supplements.

Movements to Reclaim Body Image

As awareness of the dangers of unhealthy body ideals has increased, so has activism around the promotion of body and shape acceptance. Resistance to unhealthy ideals for men and women has become the overarching purpose behind many websites, blogs, vlogs, TV specials, films, documentaries, news specials and other pervasive forms of media.
Informal forms activism like blogs can inspire national movements, like Tri-Delta's Fat Talk Free Week
Informal forms activism like blogs can inspire national movements, like Tri-Delta's Fat Talk Free Week

As information on the societal impacts of negative body image become more readily available to the public so does the strength of the movement towards self-acceptance and reclaiming ones own body. Organizations like the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, the Health At Every Size campaign, and The Dove Campaign for Real beauty work to equip people of all ages with the educational tools to combat negative body ideals in society.

The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance or NAAFA is one of the founding organizations for activism against size-based discrimination. Established in 1969, their mission, as stated on their website, is “to eliminate discrimination based on body size and provide fat people the tools for self-empowerment though public education, advocacy, and support”. NAAFA operates under the belief that size discrimination is a social injustice that negatively impacts the overall well-being of overweight and fat people in the following ways:

• Results in wage disparity.
• Complicates physical and psychological health
• Affects hiring and promotion opportunities for fat people.
• Affects academic options and advancement.
• Perpetuates societal messages that obesity is equivalent to failure as a person.
• Sanctions overt expression of bias in social situations and through mass media.





NAAFA attempts to address these societal problems through policy and educational changes within medical, academic and occupational institutions. They offer a number of policies and bylaws and educational tools on their website as well as scholarship opportunities to encourage the pursuit of a more healthy and just approach to higher education among young adults. NAAFA is also promotes and encourages Health at Every Size, or HAES, another growing movement within body activism.

Health At Every Size or HAES is an increasingly popular concept among body activists. Born from increasing scientific criticism and societal dissatisfaction with the Surgeon General’s annual warnings against obesity, this approach to health is independent of Body Mass Index or weight considerations. Instead, it promotes the practices of self-acceptance, joyful movement, and intuitive, mindful eating. Health At Every Size is a lifestyle promoted by the many size acceptance movements and organizations, as well as increasing numbers of health practitioners. Size activists find it is an especially powerful concept because more and more scientific evidence is emerging in support of the HAES lifestyle. Research at the University of California Davis found that “the health at every size approach enabled participants to maintain long-term behavior change; the diet approach did not” [17] . Another study, "Cause-Specific Excess Deaths Associated with Underweight, Overweight and Obesity" conducted by Katherine Flegal in 2005 helped clarify the associations of BMI with mortality and showed that the mortality rate that fueled the war on obesity was significantly less than the statistics previously quoted[16] . As a result of this and similar investigations it has been suggested that HAES be considered as the new, overarching public health policy regarding weight and health in the US.


The Dove Campaign For Real Beauty has been one of the most successful forms of activism within reclaiming body image. Launched in 2004, Dove works to promote self-love and positive body image in young girls by providing educational tools as an intervention against media images that promote the thin ideal that is pervasive in Westernized societies. Along with their online resources they have released a number of videos as well as magazine and billboard advertisements promoting girls and women to actively question and take issue with the current body ideals and expectations that currently influence western society.

This video is one of the many online-based short films funded by Dove to promote self-esteem and question beauty ideals in women.

Social movements like in promotion of body acceptance like those of NAAFA, HAES and The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty are becoming increasingly active in western society, and as more people become aware of the issue so too does the demand for change and educational opportunities. With the tools and information provided by these groups positive body image and representation is becoming a priority and demand in the 21st century.



Resources

  1. Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California, 1993. Print. This book is about the struggle women face in everyday society and how they cope with it. You see the influences of the outer world, such as media, images projected by movies, and the pressure women feel to be in shape. This sort of pressure makes women feel like they need to go to extreme measures to achieve thinness and beauty, like bulimia and plastic surgery.
  2. Chaplin, Beverley. "Body and Sexuality." Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Ritzer, George (ed). Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Blackwell Reference Online. 01 February 2011http://www.blackwellreference.com/subscriber/tocnode?id=g9781405124331_chunk_g97814051243318_ss1-38 This encyclopedia talks about how society constructs who we are. Women and men strive to be an image that is produced by the media and the culture they live in. Chaplin brings up the idea of the lack of research done at looking at the body as a “’vehicle in being’” and how it connects to the sexuality created by this culture
  3. Filiault, Shaun M. "Measuring Up in the Bedroom: Muscle, Thinness, and Men's Sex Lives." International Journal of Men's Health 6.2 (2007): 127-42. The Men's Study Press. 7 Aug. 2007. Web. 8 Feb. 2011. <http://mensstudies.metapress.com/content/f2556t6764v7h277/>. In this article men feel like they are less desirable to women when they have less muscle mass. They think that women find them not only physically less desirable but also sexually less desirable. Men then face a struggle to achieve the perfect body thus creating a low self-esteem until that body is achieved and women find them sexually attractive.
  4. Bardick, Angela D. "IN PURSUIT OF THE IDEAL MASCULINE BODY: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL-HERMENEUTIC APPROACH." University of Lethbridge. June 2003. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. http://www.uleth.ca/dspace/bitstream/10133/200/3/MQ83774.pdf
  5. "Muscle Supplements | Men Muscle Building - Tips To Build Muscle." Men Muscle Building – Tips To Build Muscle. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. http://menmusclebuilding.com/category/muscle-supplements/
  6. Muscle Milk | Healthy, Sustained Energy. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. http://www.musclemilk.com/
  7. "Bodybuilding.com - Pre and Post Workout Nutrition Articles!" Bodybuilding.com - Huge Online Supplement Store & Fitness Community! Web. 19 Mar. 2011. http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/bbinfo.php?page=preandpostworkoutnutrition
  8. Best Nitric Oxide Supplement | Get Ripped Fast | Best Muscle Building Supplement- 2011 How to Build Muscle Fast with Best Muscle Enhancer, the Pre Workout Supplements. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. http://www.nitrocut.com/?gclid=COiiksiG9KcCFQkFbAodxkJtbA
  9. Steroid. (2011, March 28). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:26, March 29, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Steroid&oldid=421195229
  10. Performance-enhancing drugs. (2011, March 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:19, March 20, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Performance-enhancing_drugs&oldid=41827800
  11. Cash, Thomas F. "Body Image: Past, Present, and Future."Body Image: An International Journal of Research1.1 (2004): 1-5. Print. Article introducing the creation of the first body image journal. Touches on the scientific research that has been devoted to body image up until 2004 and suggests directions for future research.
  12. Cohen, Barbara A. "The Psychology of Ideal Body Image." Center for Healing the Human Spirit. 1984. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. <http://www.healingthehumanspirit.com/pages/body_img.htm>. Article summarizing the history of the ideal female body image and speculating the causes for this ideal at certain points throughout history.
  13. Duneier, Michell, and Richard Appelbaum. "Introduction to Sociology, 5th Edition: Chapter 4: Socialization and the Life Cycle." W. W. Norton & Company. 2005. Web. 7 Feb. 2011. <http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/giddens5/ch/04/>. Brief overview of the mechanisms and development of socialization. Touches on gender perception and identity formation.
  14. Schilder, Paul. The Image and Appearance of the Human Body: Studies in the Constructive Energies of the Psyche. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner &, 1935. Print. Influential book that revolutionized the way body image is conceptualized. Brings together clinical applications from psychiatry as well as sociology and psychology.
  15. Summers, Leigh. Bound to Please: a History of the Victorian Corset. Oxford: Berg, 2001. Print. A detailed history of the invention of the Victorian corset. Describes the physical, psychological, and social effects of the corset.
  16. Ziferstein, Isidore. "Paul Ferdinand Schilder 1886-1940: Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry."Psychoanalytic Pioneers. Ed. Franz Alexander, Samuel Eisenstein, and Martin Grotjahn. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A.: Transaction, 1995. 457-68. Print. Compilation of revolutionary clinicians in the field of psychoanalysis. This chapter describes the life and contributions of Paul Ferdinand Schilder who revolutionized the way body image was viewed in research.
  17. Gabler, Ellen; Roe, Sam. Some skin whitening creams contain toxic mercury, testing finds. Chicago Tribune, 2010. Source: <http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-05-18/health/ct-met-mercury-skin-creams-20100518_1_skin-lightening-creams-mercury-testing>. Brief article about the hidden dangers of skin-lightening creams that have been found to contain mercury which has adverse reactions when exposed to lights.
  18. Jones, Geoffrey. Blonde and Blue Eyed? The Globalization of the Beauty Industry 1945-1980. Harvard Business School. April 2007. Source: <http://www.international.ucla.edu/cms/files/Geoff_jones_for_Von_Gremp.pdf>. Lengthy article describing the effects the beauty industry's marketing and evolution over the years from 1945 to 1980 had on the United States as well as other countries.
  19. Mazur, Allan. U.S. Trends in Feminine Beauty and Overadaptation. Journal of Sex Research. 22.3 (1986): 281-303. Print. Lengthy article describing the overadaptation techniques women have adopted over the years in order to achieve the cultural beauty standards set by people in the spotlight.
  20. Anderson, Arnold; Cohn, Leigh; Holbrook, Thomas. Making Weight: Men’s conflicts with Food, Weight, Shape and Appearance. Carlsbad: Gurze Books, 2000. This presents body image as a problem that has been characterized as a women’s issue and addresses the male perspective of body image issues. It is discusses the issues of body image that men face today vs women, the history of image and attraction, negative body image from a scientific perspective, and ends with solutions and guidelines to overcome disordered eating and negative body image for men.
  21. Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. New York: Psychology Press, 2008. Print. This text provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary knowledge in body image from research from the fields of psychology, sociology and gender studies in men, women and children. It is one of the few texts available that provides a comprehensive view of boy image research focusing on men, women and children. It has chapters touching on Western cultures idealization of the thin ideal, cultural trends, behavioral indicators of body dissatisfaction, theories of media influence, age, social class, ethnicity, sexuality and closes on promotion of positive body image.
  22. Thomas PhD, Pattie. "Could Health At Every Size Make A Good Public Health Policy?" The Journal: Health at every size: vol 20(1): 7-14. http://www.bulimia.com/client/client_pages/HAESprotected/HAES20-1.pdf#page=7. This article from the the Journal of Health At Every Size offers and analysis of the controversies a history of the War on Obesity that has been prevalent in the United States of America since 1996 and the benefits and downfalls of the current weight and diet solutions offered by health practitioners nation wide. It then compares the benefits of the new Health At Every Size that size and body activists have started introducing as more holistic approach to health, and the potentials advantages and detriments it could have as a new public health policy.
  23. Anderson, Arnold; Cohn, Leigh; Holbrook, Thomas. Making Weight: Men’s conflicts with Food, Weight, Shape and Appearance. Carlsbad: Gurze Books, 2000.
  24. Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. New York: Psychology Press, 2008. Print.
  25. Orbach, Susie. Fat is a Femenist Issue. Arrow Books. 2006. Print.
  26. Gimlin, Debra. Body Work: Beauty and Self Image in American Culture. Berkley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002. Print.
  27. Cash PhD, Thomas F; Pruzinsky PHd, Thomas. Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. New York: The Guildford Press. 2002. Print.
  28. Henderson, Carol E. Imagining the Black Female Body: Reconciling Image in Print and Visual Culture. New York: a division of Saint Martin’s Press LLC. 2010.
  29. Lee, Shayne. Erotic Revolutionaries: Black Women, Sexuality, and Popular Culture. Maryland: Hamilton Books Acquisitions Department. 2010. Print.
  30. Gottschold, Brenda Dixon. The Black Dancing Body: A Geography from Coon to Cool. New York: Palgrace Macmillion. 2003. Print.
  31. Molinary, Rosie. Hijas Americanas: Beauty, Body Image, and Growing Up Latina. Emeryville, CA. Seal Press. 2007. Print.
  32. Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls. New York: Vintage Books a Division of Random House Inc. 1997.
  33. A Girl Like Me. Dir. Davis, Kiri. 2005. Mini Documentary.
  34. Bacon Phd, Linda. Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth about Your Weight. Dallas, TX: BenBella Books. 2008.
  35. Orbach, Susie. Bodies. New York: Picador under Saint Martin’s Press. 2009.
  36. Bordo, Susan. The Male Body: A Look at Men in Public and in Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
  37. Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.
  38. Robison PhD, Jonathan Issac (2006). "Health at Every Size: Shifting the Focus to Health". Absolute Advantages: The Workplace Wellness Magazine 5 (3): 10-16.
  39. Cash, Thomas F. "Body Image: Past, Present, and Future." Body Image: An International Journal of Research 1.1 (2004): 1-5. Print.
  40. Fat Rant. Dir. Nash, Joy. 2007. Film.
  41. Campos, Paul, Abigail Saguy, Paul Ernsberger, Eric Oliver, and Glen Gaesser. 2006. “The Epidemiology of Overweight and Obesity: Public Health Crisis or Moral Panic?” International Journal of Epidemiology. 35:1. pp. 55–60.
  42. Gaesser, G. (2006). "Fatness, Fitness & Health: A Closer Look At The Evidence" (pdf). Absolute Advantage: The Workplace Wellness Magazine 1582 1583 (3): 18–21.http://www.welcoa.org/freeresources/pdf/aa_5.3_feb06.pdf
  43. United States Department of Agriculture (2006). "Health At Every Size: New Hope for Obese Americans?". http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/mar06/health0306.htm.
  44. Thomas PhD, Pattie. "Could Health At Every Size Make A Good Public Health Policy?" The Journal: Health at every size: vol 20(1): 7-14. http://www.bulimia.com/client/client_pages/HAESprotected/HAES20-1.pdf#page=7
  45. L. Bacon et al. (2005). "Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters" (abstract page). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105 (6): 929–936
  46. Office of the Surgeon General. (January 11, 2007). Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences. In U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_consequences.htm
  47. Katherine M. Flegal, PhD. (2005). Cause-Specific Excess Deaths Associated With Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. In The Journal of American Medical Association. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/298/17/2028.abstract?sid=ddfe2177-60c7-4b1f-b50f-129b9e7bd4ec.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight_watchers

  1. Cash, Thomas F. "Body Image: Past, Present, and Future."Body Image: An International Journal of Research1.1 (2004): 1-5. Print. Article introducing the creation of the first body image journal. Touches on the scientific research that has been devoted to body image up until 2004 and suggests directions for future research.
  2. [[#cite_ref-2|^]] Ziferstein, Isidore. "Paul Ferdinand Schilder 1886-1940: Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry."Psychoanalytic Pioneers. Ed. Franz Alexander, Samuel Eisenstein, and Martin Grotjahn. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A.: Transaction, 1995. 457-68. Print. Compilation of revolutionary clinicians in the field of psychoanalysis. This chapter describes the life and contributions of Paul Ferdinand Schilder who revolutionized the way body image was viewed in research.
  3. [[#cite_ref-3|^]] Schilder, Paul. The Image and Appearance of the Human Body: Studies in the Constructive Energies of the Psyche. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner &, 1935. Print. Influential book that revolutionized the way body image is conceptualized. Brings together clinical applications from psychiatry as well as sociology and psychology.
  4. [[#cite_ref-4|^]] Cash, Thomas F. "Body Image: Past, Present, and Future."Body Image: An International Journal of Research1.1 (2004): 1-5. Print. Article introducing the creation of the first body image journal. Touches on the scientific research that has been devoted to body image up until 2004 and suggests directions for future research
  5. [[#cite_ref-5|^]] Cohen, Barbara A. "The Psychology of Ideal Body Image." Center for Healing the Human Spirit. 1984. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. . Article summarizing the history of the ideal female body image and speculating the causes for this ideal at certain points throughout history.
  6. [[#cite_ref-6|^]] Summers, Leigh. Bound to Please: a History of the Victorian Corset. Oxford: Berg, 2001. Print. A detailed history of the invention of the Victorian corset. Describes the physical, psychological, and social effects of the corset.
  7. [[#cite_ref-7|^]] Cohen, Barbara A. "The Psychology of Ideal Body Image." Center for Healing the Human Spirit. 1984. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. . Article summarizing the history of the ideal female body image and speculating the causes for this ideal at certain points throughout history.
  8. [[#cite_ref-8|^]] http://www.truekare.com/gov03.htm
  9. [[#cite_ref-9|^]] http://www.georgetowncollege.edu/Departments/ws/1st,_2nd,_3rd_wave.htm
  10. [[#cite_ref-10|^]] http://www.truekare.com/gov03.htm
  11. [[#cite_ref-11|^]] Jones, Geoffrey. Blonde and Blue Eyed? The Globalization of the Beauty Industry 1945-1980. Harvard Business School. April 2007. Source:
  12. [[#cite_ref-12|^]] Gabler, Ellen; Roe, Sam. Some skin whitening creams contain toxic mercury, testing finds. Chicago Tribune, 2010. Source:
  13. [[#cite_ref-13|^]] Mazur, Allan. U.S. Trends in Feminine Beauty and Overadaptation. Journal of Sex Research. 22.3 (1986): 281-303. Print.
  14. [[#cite_ref-14|^]] Mazur, Allan. U.S. Trends in Feminine Beauty and Overadaptation. Journal of Sex Research. 22.3 (1986): 281-303. Print.
  15. [[#cite_ref-15|^]] http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/16/popular-plastic-surgery-lifestyle-health-cosmetic-surgery.html
  16. [[#cite_ref-16|^]] http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/bbinfo.php?page=preandpostworkoutnutrition
  17. [[#cite_ref-17|^]] Office of the Surgeon General. (January 11, 2007). Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences. In U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_consequences.htm.
  18. [[#cite_ref-18|^]] Thomas PhD, Pattie. "Could Health At Every Size Make A Good Public Health Policy?" The Journal: Health at every size: vol 20(1):11. http://www.bulimia.com/client/client_pages/HAESprotected/HAES20-1.pdf#page=7
  19. [[#cite_ref-19|^]] Thomas PhD, Pattie. "Could Health At Every Size Make A Good Public Health Policy?" The Journal: Health at every size: vol 20(1): 11-13. http://www.bulimia.com/client/client_pages/HAESprotected/HAES20-1.pdf#page=7
  20. [[#cite_ref-20|^]] Katherine M. Flegal, PhD. (2005). Cause-Specific Excess Deaths Associated With Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. In The Journal of American Medical Association. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/298/17/2028.abstract?sid=ddfe2177-60c7-4b1f-b50f-129b9e7bd4ec.
  21. [[#cite_ref-21|^]] Bacon Phd, Linda. Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth about Your Weight. pg 1. Dallas, TX: BenBella Books. 2008.
  22. [[#cite_ref-22|^]] Bacon Phd, Linda. Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth about Your Weight. pg 278. Dallas, TX: BenBella Books. 2008.
  23. [[#cite_ref-23|^]] Thomas PhD, Pattie. "Could Health At Every Size Make A Good Public Health Policy?" The Journal: Health at every size: vol 20(1):10. http://www.bulimia.com/client/client_pages/HAESprotected/HAES20-1.pdf#page=7